Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown in epidemiological and clinical trials to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (Kris-Etherton et al, 2002).
It has been demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acid supplements can reduce cardiac events (e.g. death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke) and decrease progression of atherosclerosis in coronary patients. A dietary (i.e. food-based) approach to increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake is preferable (Kris-Etherton et al, 2002).
Omega-3 fatty acid consumption has been associated with improved cardiovascular function in terms of antiinflamatory properties and reducing major coronary events (Swanson et al, 2012).
The ratio of dietary omega-3 to omega-6 determines the ratio of anti-inflammatory to inflammatory eicosanoids (Hixon, 2014).
The average diet in North America typically has far too much omega-6 and far too few omega-3; this is why it is critical for North American's to consume fish that are high in omega-3 to help deal with this imbalance (Hixon, 2014).
Here are some quick facts about DHA & EPA:
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are dietary fats with an array of health benefits (e.g. are essential for proper fetal development and proper aging). They are important through-out life and are a dietary necessity found predominantly in fish and other seafood (Swanson et al, 2012).
Low intake of dietary EPA and DHA is thought to be associated with increased inflammatory processes as well as poor fetal development, general cardiovascular health, and risk of development of Alzheimer's disease (Swanson et al, 2012).
Benefits of Consuming DHA & EPA During Pregnancy:
The 2010 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services dietary guidelines recommend that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consume 300mg DHA per day (Judge et al, 2007). Note: a single 100g serving of Baja Kanpachi has 380mg of DHA.
One study found that children whose mothers had taken DHA supplementation during pregnancy had significantly better problem-solving skills at 9 mo old than those whose mothers had not taken DHA supplementation during pregnancy (Judge et al, 2007).
Another study showed that children (age 2) whose mothers had taken DHA + EPA during pregnancy had significantly higher scores for hand-eye coordination (Swanson et al, 2012).
Studies have also shown that supplementation of EPA and DHA during pregnancy is linked to decreased incidence of allergies in infants (Swanson et al, 2012).
Benefits of Consuming DHA & EPA in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease:
Currently, the number of individuals with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is approximately 26.6 million and this is expected to increase to 106.2 million by 2050 (Swanson et al, 2012).
Patients with AD have been shown to be deficient in DHA, and supplementing them with EPA + DHA not only reverses this deficiency, but may also improve cognitive functioning in patients with very mild AD (Swanson et al, 2012).
DHA & EPA
Protein is the major structural component of all cells in the body. Proteins also function as enzymes. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for both men and women is 0.80g of good quality protein/kg of body weight/d and is based on careful analyses of available nitrogen balance studies.
So for example, a typical 180lbs (82kg) man would require about 65.6g of protein per day. This means that a single (100g) serving of Baja Kanpachi would meet about 1/3 of his daily protein requirements.
Protein deficiency has adverse effects on all organs but has particularly harmful effects on the brain (as well as brain function) (Lupton et al, 2004).
"Fat is a major source of fuel for the body and aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K) and carotenoids. Neither an Adequate Intake (AI) nor Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is set for total fat; however, Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), has been estimated for total fat as 20 to 35% of energy.
If intakes of fat, along with carbohydrate and protein, are inadequate to meet energy needs, the individual will be in negative energy balance and malnutrition may occur. Certain low fat, high carbohydrate diets have been linked to chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes. (Lupton et al, 2004).
"The primary role of carbohydrates (sugars and starches) is to provide energy to cells in the body, particularly the brain, which is the only carbohydrate-dependent organ in the body." (Lupton et al, 2004).
"The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for carbohydrate is set at 130g/d for adults and children based on the average minimum amount of glucose utilized by the brain. This level of intake, however, is typically exceeded to meet energy needs while consuming acceptable intake levels of fat and protein. the median intake of carbohydrates is approximately 220 to 330 g/d for men and 180 to 230 g /d for women." (Lupton et al, 2004).
That being said, the lower limit of dietary carbohydrate requirements is actually zero. In other words, dietary carbohydrates are not necessary as long as adequate amounts of protein and fat are consumed (Lupton et al, 2004).
"The cation sodium (Na+) and the anion chloride (Cl-) are normally found in most foods together as sodium chloride, also termed 'salt'. Sodium and chloride are required to maintain extracellular voume and plasma osmolarity" (Lupton et al, 2004).
"Americans consume approx. 3700mg sodium daily, whereas the US Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services recommend 2300mg daily intake for the general population, with a stricter recommendation of 1500mg/d for thos over 50 years of age, or individuals with hypertension, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction can be difficult to adhere to, but is arguably one of the most important self-care behaviors for patients with heart failure." (Gupta et al, 2012).
Baja Kanpachi is low in sodium (only 41 mg per serving) so those watching their sodium intake need not worry.
PROTEINS, LIPIDS, CARBOHYDRATES, & SALTS
Swanson D., Block R., and Mousa S.A. 2012. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Througout Life. Advances in Nutrition. 3:1-7. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000893
Judge MP, Harel O, Lammi-Keefe CJ. 2007. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 85: 1572-7.
Kris-Etherton P.M., Harris W.S., and Appel L.J. 2002. Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association: Circulation. 106:2747-2757. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000038493.65177.94
Hixson SM (2014) Fish Nutrition and Current Issues in Aquaculture: The Balance in Providing Safe and Nutritious Seafood, in an Environmentally Sustainable Manner. J Aquac Res Development 5: 234. doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000234
Gupta D., Georgiopoulou V.V., Kalogeropoulos A.P., Dunbar S.B., Reilly C.M. Sands J.M., Fonarow G.C., Jessup M., Gheorghiade M., Ynacy C., and Butler J. 2012. Dietary Sodium Intake in Heart Failure. Contemporary Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. Circulation. 126: 479-485. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.062430
Lupton J.R., Brooks G.A., Butte N.F., Caballero B., Flatt J.P. Fried S.K., Garlick P.J., Grundy S.M., Innis S.M., Jenkins D.J., Johnson R.K., Krauss R.M., Kris-Etherton P., Lichtenstein A.H., Nuttall F.Q., Pencharz P.B., Pi-Sunyer F.X., Rand W.M., Reeds P.J., Rimm E.B. and Roberts S.B. 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes for Engery, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, US: National Academies Press, 2004. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 3 October 2016